I'm sorry to point out the obvious to those of you who know, but for the first-time camper building a good fire can often be a challenge. These are my trusted methods, materials and tips that work (nearly) every time.
You will need:
- A flame: possible options are a lighter, matches or if you are very clever a spark from sticks or rocks.
- Tinder: Dry leaves (possible alternatives paper, dry grass, dry moss, bog cotton, eucalyptus leaves...)
- Kindling: Small sticks
- Bigger sticks
- Possible cheats: a candle, oil or fat, firelighters...
1. Make a small pyramid with your tinder and kindling putting the thinnest, driest most flammable things on first and leaving a gap in the sticks to light the tinder from.
2. Build up your pyramid with bigger sticks remembering to leave the gap.
3. If you are unsure as to whether your fire will start, it is best to light it now and see whether it takes. Once most of the material is starting to burn, begin to add your biggest sticks and logs. Otherwise, continue your pyramid with the bigger sticks and logs and then light.
Method two (better if you have more big logs or are somewhere windy)
- Place two big logs, parallel with each-other between 20 and 40 centimetres apart (depending on how big you want your fire and how much small wood you have).
- Place your tinder in the gap starting, as above, with the smallest most flammable material first.
- Using a careful criss-cross pattern continue to add some kindling, then bigger sticks resting the ends on the two side logs. As above be sure to leave the edge of your tinder accessible for lighting.
- Light your tinder and if it takes, continue to slowly add bigger and bigger wood until you think it's hot enough to add some logs on the top. Continue to use your two big side logs as a frame to rest the ends of your big pieces of wood to allow airflow.
Protect your fire.
- Choose a sheltered spot, dig a hole in the sand or make barriers to block the wind.
Choose the right sticks.
- As far as fire-lighting material is concerned, brown is good, green is very bad. This obviously doesn't apply to flammable plants such as eucalyptus, pine and other evergreen, oily leaves (though these are usually only good for a quick blast of heat).
Don't drown your fire!
- Be sure to allow your fire time to heat up and catch most of the existing material alight before adding more. Excess can block the airflow. If you put lots of leafy material on top of your small sticks, the leaves will block the air and if they do light, their falling ash can also drown the fire below.
Give it some extra oxygen.
- A good way to encourage your fire if it seems to be struggling, is to blow at the base and provide more oxygen. Ideally the flames should catch again before you pass out! If you loose the battle, you can always add more tinder to start it up again.
- If you have slightly wet wood, dry the sticks and logs around the edges of your fire before attempting to burn it.
So, when is it a cooking fire?
- For cooking, you will usually want to wait until enough big sticks and logs have been burning for a decent amount of time before letting it die down to a red, smouldering state. If you attempt to cook over big flames you will probably find that your food burns before it is cooked through!
- I won't patronise you too much, but make sure your fire isn't going to spread anywhere it shouldn't. Be extra careful near children, pets and flammable materials such as tents and synthetic fibres (fleece will melt onto your skin). Check whether you are allowed to burn wood in that area and use your common sense to avoid being the idiot who started a forest fire. Don't leave it unattended and extinguish with water once you have finished.
These are the two simplest ways of building a fire that I know, if you prefer another method I'm eager to hear. Please explain below in the comments!
To read about some of my favourite camping spots try...
- Cabo Blanco- a safe haven in Peru.
- Falling down the rabbit hole- life in the woods at Espiral de Luz, Samaipata, Bolivia.
- El Vergel permaculture farm, camping and accommodation, Sorata, Bolivia.
- Hitch-hiking Sydney to Melbourne.
- Eight amazing seaside spots on the Isle of Islay- advice from a local.
- San Agustin, Colombia- Ancient Civilisations, Tasty Colombian Specialities and an Incredible Mountainous Landscape.